This website uses its own and third-party cookies. Some of these cookies are used to develop analytical statistics of visits to the webpage, others to manage advertising or even others are necessary for the correct management of the site. If you continue to browse or click in accept we consider you accept the conditions for their use. You can get more information, or learn how to change the settings in our cookies policy?
Versión Española Versión Mexicana Ibercampus English Version Version française Versione italiana

18/6/2018  
    Ibercampus  | Editorial Board | Who we are | Ideology | Contact | Advertising rates | Subscription | RSS RSS
Policies
Inclusion policies
R&D
Employment
Economics
Culture
Green strategies
Health
Society and consumer
Sports
Debates
Interviews
Education
Grants & internships
Training
Trends
Enterprises & CSR
 Enterprises & CSR
ACNUR
AEGON
AIR LIQUIDE
ALCATEL-LUCENT
ALLIANZ
ARCELORMITTAL
ASIFIN
ASSICURAZIONI GENERALI
AXA
BANCO SANTANDER
BASF
BAYER
BBVA
BNP PARIBAS
CARREFOUR
DAIMLER AG
DEUTSCHE BANK
DEUTSCHE BÖRSE
DEUTSCHE TELEKOM
E.ON
ENEL
ENI
FORTIS
FRANCE TÉLÉCOM
GROUPE DANONE
IBERDROLA
INDITEX
ING GROUP
INTESA SANPAOLO
L'ORÉAL
LVMH
MUNICH RE
NOKIA
PHILIPS
RENAULT
REPSOL YPF
RWE
SAINT GOBAIN
SANOFI-AVENTIS
SAP AG
SCHNEIDER ELECTRIC
SIEMENS AG
SOCIÉTÉ GÉNÉRALE
SUEZ
TELECOM ITALIA
TELEFÓNICA
TOTAL S.A.
UNICREDIT
UNILEVER
VINCI
VIVENDI
VOLKSWAGEN

SOCIETY AND CONSUMER
30-50% of adults in the United States and Europe are myopic

A new study provides "strong evidence" that more time spent in education is a risk factor for myopia


Spending more years in full time education is associated with a greater risk of developing short-sightedness (myopia), finds a study published by The BMJ today
Ibercampus 11/6/2018 Send to a friend
Comparte esta noticia en TwitterFacebookTwitterdel.icio.usYahooRSS

The researchers say their study provides "strong evidence" that more time spent in education is a risk factor for myopia, and that the findings "have important implications for educational practices."

Myopia, or short-sightedness, is a leading cause of visual impairment worldwide. Currently, 30-50% of adults in the United States and Europe are myopic, with levels of 80-90% reported in school leavers in some East Asian countries.

Based on existing trends, the number of people affected by myopia worldwide is expected to increase from 1.4 billion to 5 billion by 2050, affecting about half of the world's population. Almost 10% of these people (around 9 million) will have high myopia, which carries a greater risk of blindness.

Many studies have reported strong links between education and myopia, but it is not clear whether increasing exposure to education causes myopia, myopic children are more studious, or socioeconomic position leads to myopia and higher levels of education.

So researchers based at the University of Bristol and Cardiff University set out to determine whether education is a direct (causal) risk factor for myopia, or myopia is a causal risk factor for more years in education.

Using a technique called Mendelian randomisation, they analysed 44 genetic variants associated with myopia and 69 genetic variants associated with years of schooling for 67,798 men and women aged 40 to 69 years from the UK Biobank database.

Analysing genetic information in this way avoids some of the problems that afflict traditional observational studies, making the results less prone to unmeasured (confounding) factors, and therefore more likely to be reliable.

An association that is observed using Mendelian randomisation therefore strengthens the inference of a causal relationship.

After taking account of potentially influential factors, Mendelian randomisation analyses suggested that every additional year of education was associated with more myopia (a refractive error of 0.27 dioptres a year).

To put this into context, a university graduate from the UK with 17 years of education would, on average, be at least 1 dioptre more myopic than someone who left school at 16 (with 12 years of education). This level of myopia would mean needing glasses for driving.

By contrast, there was little evidence to suggest that myopia led people to remain in education for longer.

The researchers point to some study limitations. For example, UK Biobank participants have been shown to be more highly educated, have healthier lifestyles, and report fewer health issues compared with the general UK population, which may have affected the results. However, there was little evidence that this could explain their findings.

"This study shows that exposure to more years in education contributes to the rising prevalence of myopia, and highlights a need for further research and discussion about how educational practices might be improved to achieve better outcomes without adversely affecting vision," they conclude.

In a linked editorial, Professor Ian Morgan at the Australian National University and colleagues say the evidence suggests that it is not only genes but environmental and social factors that may have major effects on myopia.

They point to East Asia, where early intense educational pressures combined with little time for play outdoors has led to almost 50% of children being myopic by the end of primary school, compared with less than 10% in a study of British children.

"Early onset allows more time for myopia to progress to high and potentially pathological myopia," they warn, and they argue that education systems "must change to help protect the visual health of future generations."

In a linked opinion piece, study author Denize Atan also points to evidence showing that time spent outdoors in childhood partially protects against the development of myopia.

Although reduced exposure to natural daylight might not be the sole mechanism to explain the association between education and myopia, she writes, "given the advantages of time spent outdoors on mental health and the protection it provides against obesity and chronic diseases, we might all benefit from spending more time outside."


Other issues Society and consumer
Commission proposes €1.26 billion to reinforce the European Solidarity Corps
Ecuadorian politician and poet becomes fourth woman to preside over UN General Assembly
EU negotiators reach a political agreement to update the EU´s telecoms rules
Empowering women and girls to shape sustainable development during the European Development Days
A genetic algorithm predicts the vertical growth of cities
UNESCO celebrates the 1st International Day of Light
Commission Launches Online Citizens´ Consultation
Arts and culture could help Finnish schools reach new heights of excellence
150 youth organisation from across Europe meet to discuss issues that matter to youth
Why traffic accidents with cyclists are becoming increasingly more common

Subscribe free to our newsletter
Vanity Fea
The Prehistoric Origin of Cinema
José Ángel García Landa
Financial inclusion
Financial Education For All!
Carlos Trias
Brusselian Lights
European elections (I): which words are more used in the European political manifestos?
Raúl Muriel Carrasco
Humor and Political Communication
Comisión de Arbitraje, Quejas y Deontología (Spain) (3) You can´t be too careful
Felicísimo Valbuena
Want your own blog? Want to be read by universities?
Find out here
Books
Doughnut Economics "Seven Ways to Think Like a 21st-Century Economist "
The People vs Tech "How the Internet Is Killing Democracy"
Will Big Business Destroy Our Planet?
Casey, Michael J.; Vigna, Paul: Cryptocurrency "The Future of Money?"
Eurydice brief: Citizenship Education at School in Europe – 2017
The Future of Work
Theses and dissertations
1 New initiatives to further boost role of youth, education and culture policies
2 EU has more digital specialists than before but skills gaps remain
3 Doughnut Economics "Seven Ways to Think Like a 21st-Century Economist "
4 5 June: World Environment Day
5 Finland innovates with digital ´climate game´ to focus youth on the planet
6 Ecuadorian politician and poet becomes fourth woman to preside over UN General Assembly
7 EU negotiators reach a political agreement to update the EU´s telecoms rules
8 Commission proposes most ambitious Research and Innovation programme yet
9 World Oceans Day 2018
10 DiscoverEU: 15,000 travel passes up for grabs to explore the EU this summer
Legal Advise | Privacy Policy | Editorial Board | Who we are | Ideology | Contact | Advertising rates | RSS RSS