This website uses its own and third-party cookies. Some of these cookies are used to develop analytical statistics of visits to the webpage, others to manage advertising or even others are necessary for the correct management of the site. If you continue to browse or click in accept we consider you accept the conditions for their use. You can get more information, or learn how to change the settings in our cookies policy?
Versión Española Versión Mexicana Ibercampus English Version Version française Versione italiana

17/7/2018  
    Ibercampus  | Editorial Board | Who we are | Ideology | Contact | Advertising rates | Subscription | RSS RSS
Policies
Inclusion policies
R&D
Employment
Economics
Culture
Green strategies
Health
Society and consumer
Sports
Debates
Interviews
Education
Grants & internships
Training
Trends
Enterprises & CSR
 Enterprises & CSR
ACNUR
AEGON
AIR LIQUIDE
ALCATEL-LUCENT
ALLIANZ
ARCELORMITTAL
ASIFIN
ASSICURAZIONI GENERALI
AXA
BANCO SANTANDER
BASF
BAYER
BBVA
BNP PARIBAS
CARREFOUR
DAIMLER AG
DEUTSCHE BANK
DEUTSCHE BÖRSE
DEUTSCHE TELEKOM
E.ON
ENEL
ENI
FORTIS
FRANCE TÉLÉCOM
GROUPE DANONE
IBERDROLA
INDITEX
ING GROUP
INTESA SANPAOLO
L'ORÉAL
LVMH
MUNICH RE
NOKIA
PHILIPS
RENAULT
REPSOL YPF
RWE
SAINT GOBAIN
SANOFI-AVENTIS
SAP AG
SCHNEIDER ELECTRIC
SIEMENS AG
SOCIÉTÉ GÉNÉRALE
SUEZ
TELECOM ITALIA
TELEFÓNICA
TOTAL S.A.
UNICREDIT
UNILEVER
VINCI
VIVENDI
VOLKSWAGEN

POLICIES
Global Ocean Oxygen Network (GO2NE)

Scientists reveal dangers and solutions for the increasing low oxygen levels in the world


As the Earth warms, scientists expect oxygen levels to continue dropping in open ocean. To halt the decline, the world needs to rein in both climate change and nutrient pollution, an international team of scientists assert in a new paper published January 5 in Science magazine.
Ibercampus 9/1/2018 Send to a friend
Comparte esta noticia en TwitterFacebookTwitterdel.icio.usYahooRSS
The study comes from the Global Ocean Oxygen Network (GO2NE), a new working group created in 2016 by UNESCO’s Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (IOC), representing 21 institutions in 11 countries. The review paperis the first to take such a sweeping look at the causes, consequences and solutions to low oxygen worldwide, in both the open ocean and coastal waters. The article highlights the biggest dangers to the ocean and society, and what it will take to keep Earth’s waters healthy and productive.

The Stakes

“Approximately half of the oxygen on Earth comes from the ocean,” says Vladimir Ryabinin, Executive Secretary of the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission that formed the GO2NE group. “However, combined effects of nutrient loading and climate change are greatly increasing the number and size of ‘dead zones’ in the open ocean and coastal waters, where oxygen is too low to support most marine life.”

In areas traditionally called “dead zones,” like those in Chesapeake Bay (United States) and the Baltic Sea, oxygen plummets to levels so low many animals suffocate and die. As fish avoid these zones, their habitats shrink and they become more vulnerable to predators or fishing. But the problem goes far beyond “dead zones,” the authors point out. Even smaller oxygen declines can stunt growth in animals, hinder reproduction and lead to disease or even death. It also can trigger the release of dangerous chemicals such as nitrous oxide, a greenhouse gas up to 300 times more powerful than carbon dioxide, and toxic hydrogen sulfide. While some animals can thrive in dead zones, overall biodiversity falls.

Climate change is the key culprit in the open ocean. Warming surface waters make it harder for oxygen to reach the ocean interior. Furthermore, as the ocean as a whole gets warmer, it holds less oxygen, in an unfortunate twist, animals in warmer waters need more oxygen. In coastal waters, excess nutrient pollution from land creates algal blooms, which drain oxygen as they die and decompose, even as it is disappearing.

People’s livelihoods are also on the line, the scientists reported, especially in developing nations. Smaller, artisanal fisheries may be unable to relocate when low oxygen destroys their harvests or forces fish to move elsewhere. In the Philippines, fish kills due to low oxygen in a single town’s aquaculture pens cost more than $10 million. Coral reefs, a key tourism attraction in many countries, also can waste away without enough oxygen.

Some popular fisheries could benefit, at least in the short term. Nutrient pollution can stimulate production of food for fish. In addition, when fish are forced to crowd to escape low oxygen, they can become easier to catch. But in the long run, this could result in overfishing and damage to the economy.

Winning the War: A Three-Pronged Approach

A healthy ocean is vital for the survival of the planet. It contributes to local, national and global economy with around 350 million jobs worldwide. The blue economy opens tremendous opportunities, not least for developing countries, through renewable energy, tourism, aquaculture, or biotechnology. Deoxygenation poses a threat to these many benefits humans derive from marine ecosystems.

To keep low oxygen in check, the scientists say the world needs to take on the issue from three angles:
  • Address the causes: nutrient pollution and climate change, via dramatically reducing agricultural fertilizer use and GHG emissions. While neither issue is simple or easy, the steps needed to win can benefit people as well as the environment. Better septic systems and sanitation can protect human health and keep pollution out of the water.
  • Protect vulnerable marine life and ocean resources. As the expansion of low oxygen areas seems unavoidable in some places, it is crucial to protect at-risk fisheries from further stress. According to the GO2NE team, this could mean creating marine protected areas or no-catch zones in areas animals use to escape low oxygen, or switching to fish that are not as threatened by falling oxygen levels.
  • Improve low-oxygen tracking worldwide. Scientists have a decent grasp of how much oxygen the ocean could lose in the future, but they do not know exactly where those low-oxygen zones will be. Enhanced monitoring especially in the southern hemisphere, experimental work to improve the understanding of processes causing and impacted by deoxygenation, as well as the development of advanced, and numerical models will help pinpoint which places are most at risk and determine the most effective solutions.
The findings presented in this article and the many related activities to this international endeavor will contribute to the UN Decade of Ocean Science for Sustainable Development. Advancing our knowledge about the threat of ocean deoxygenation, warming, acidification, as well as numerous other human caused stressors will be key to ensure a sustainable management of our common good – the ocean.

“This is a problem we can solve,” said Denise Breitburg, lead author and marine ecologist with the Smithsonian Environmental Research Center. “Halting climate change requires a global effort, but even local actions can help with nutrient-driven oxygen decline.” As proof, Breitburg points to the ongoing recovery of Chesapeake Bay, where nitrogen pollution has dropped 24 percent since its peak thanks to better sewage treatment, better farming practices and successful laws like the Clean Air Act. While some low-oxygen zones persist, the area of the Chesapeake with zero oxygen has almost disappeared. “Tackling climate change may seem more daunting,” she added, “but doing it is critical for stemming the decline of oxygen in our oceans, and for nearly every aspect of life on our planet.”

Kirsten Isensee, Programme Specialist at IOC-UNESCO, highlighted that “Ocean Deoxygenation – is taking place all over the world, as a result of the human footprint, therefore we also need to address it globally. And I am positive that the international effort GO2NE can help at the local, regional and global level to better adapt and to hopefully reduce the impact and extent of low oxygen areas in the ocean.”
 

Other issues Policies
9 million citizens have got involved in EU law-making
9 million citizens have got involved in EU law-making
16 and 17 year old young generations in Malta will have the right to have their voice counted
Size of Parliament to shrink after Brexit
Want a healthier population? Spend less on health care and more on social services
Most Europeans believe being in EU benefits their country
Cheaper phone calls to other EU countries
Europe publishes assessment of offers to host European Banking Authority & European Medicine Agency
European Commission establishes that the referendum in Catalonia was not legal
International Day for the Total Elimination of Nuclear Weapons

Subscribe free to our newsletter
Vanity Fea
The Prehistoric Origin of Cinema
José Ángel García Landa
Financial inclusion
Financial Education For All!
Carlos Trias
Brusselian Lights
European elections (I): which words are more used in the European political manifestos?
Raúl Muriel Carrasco
Humor and Political Communication
Comisión de Arbitraje, Quejas y Deontología (Spain) (3) You can´t be too careful
Felicísimo Valbuena
Want your own blog? Want to be read by universities?
Find out here
Books
Blockchain Revolution "How the Technology Behind Bitcoin and Cryptocurrency Is Changing the World "
Doughnut Economics "Seven Ways to Think Like a 21st-Century Economist "
The People vs Tech "How the Internet Is Killing Democracy"
Will Big Business Destroy Our Planet?
Casey, Michael J.; Vigna, Paul: Cryptocurrency "The Future of Money?"
Eurydice brief: Citizenship Education at School in Europe – 2017
Theses and dissertations
1 Schools in over 30 countries to trial ocean literacy manual
2 Joint EU-Japan statement following the first EU-Japan policy dialogue in education, culture & sport
3 Age and education affect job changes, study finds
4 Euro area job vacancy rate at 2.1% -EU28 rate at 2.2%
5 Europe discusses AI ethical and social impact with philosophical and non-confessional organisations
6 New EU rules ensure better protection for 120 million holidaymakers this summer
7 LUX Film Prize: official selection for 2018 revealed
8 Commission welcomes agreement between EU Member States on key files for a more social Europe
9 300 participants join the European Validation Festival
10 Bad behavior to significant other in tough times has more impact than positive gestures
Legal Advise | Privacy Policy | Editorial Board | Who we are | Ideology | Contact | Advertising rates | RSS RSS